CODART, Dutch and Flemish art in museums worldwide

Flying Dutchmen: drawings

Exhibition: 12 December 2006 - 18 March 2007

Aegidius Sadeler, Mechti Kuli Beg, Persian envoy to court of Rudolf II, Bratislava

Aegidius Sadeler, Mechti Kuli Beg,
Persian envoy to the court of Rudolf II

Bratislava, Gal├ęria Mesta Bratislavy

Curator

Martin ─îi─Źo

From the museum website

On the big show of masterpieces of Netherlands art in Slovakia under the name Wandering Dutchmen takes part also the City Gallery of Bratislava, which has the second largest collection of Netherlands painting and graphic art in Slovakia. In the Mirbach Palace of the City Gallery of Bratislava in the curatorÔÇÖs conception of Martin ─îi─Źo a part is presented dedicated to the era of Mannerism and the art of graphics where more than 90 graphic works and 3 paintings are presented. They are
masterworks by the most important graphic artists of the last third of the 16th century and of the beginning of the 17th century whose creation was anchored in the indigenous surroundings, but also in the points of work abroad. Just like the art of Mannerism also the creation of these renowned graphic artists and reproduction carvers had an exceptional character and it co-set the tone of the art of Mannerism which had an international character.

One the most important creators was Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617), who connected the home tradition with Italian influences of Renaissance and late-Antic art into a unique form and distinctly influenced the art of carving not only at home but also abroad. To the jewels belong in particular his own carvings (for example the prints from the Passion cycle, Morning, St. Hieronymus), but also the reproductions of his works (Bacchus, Venus and Ceres). Interesting examples are also imitations of his Passion scenes, created as forgeries.

On the exhibition are presented also works by his most important pupil Jacques de Gheyn (1565-1629). Accept for the most developed indigenous centres of the ÔÇťblack artÔÇŁ, mainly Antwerp and Haarlem another important point of work of Netherlands Mannerists was mainly the Prague court of the emperor Rudolf II. The emperor Rudolf was a passionate collector of mainly contemporary art and if it was possible he employed his favourite authors as his court painters who fulfilled his concepts. In this way he gradually created in Prague an important artistic circle where some outstanding artists of their era met, like for example Hans von Aachen (1552-1615), Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527-1606?) and his son Paul Vredeman de Vries (1567-after 1616), Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1601) and from the graphic artists mainly Aegidius Sadeler (around 1570-1629) whose works are represented also at the exhibition and which belong to jewels of European art. At the exhibition are represented e.g. portraits of the emperor Rudolf II., his general Carl Bonaventura Buquoy or the Persian attach├ę at the Prague court from Aegidius Sadeler or the famous art piece Diana and Actaeon by RudolfÔÇÖs court painter Joseph Heintz (1564-1609) in graphic reproduction by the emperorÔÇÖs court graphic artist. Hendrick Goltzius gave Rudolf a cycle of Roman Heroes which is at the exhibition represented with three artworks. The culture of the rulersÔÇÖ courts document also other works: cycle Gardens by Hans Vredeman de Vries, cycle Hunts created according to proposals of Jan Stradanus (1523-1605) who worked in Florence for the Medici. Different genres are presented with biblical histories, for Mannerism typical allegories, but also landscape or view at Prague from the most important European edition of views at cities Civitates orbis terrarum. All these works show high professionalism of the carvers of reproducing graphics like the members of the families Collaert, Galle and Jan Saenredam (1565-1602) and others. Many of them belonged not only to very skilled graphics craftsmen creating reproductions who could copy the style of the creator of the artwork but also publishers of their own and also prints produced by others.

Except for a great amount of graphic prints at the exhibition are presented also three very precious paintings two of them are originating from the collection of Rudolf II., from his Prague picture gallery. Those are the artworks by Hans van Aachen, Carrying of the Cross and Paul Vredeman de Vries, whose picturing of an architectural motif in central perspective belonged to the most popular in its genre.

To other peaks of the exhibition belong finally the works by the greatest Dutch artist of the 17th century Harmensz Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669). Concerning the time he oversteps the era of dying off the art of Mannerism but right on his example as the contrast to carvers ÔÇťmannerÔÇŁ it is very well visible what were the aims of the Mannerists and on the other side the genius of Rembrandts free drawing in which he created his unrepeatable etchings.

Na ve─żkej prehliadke majstrovsk├Żch diel nizozemsk├ęho umenia na Slovensku pod n├ízvom
Bludn├ş Holan─Ćania sa podie─ża aj Gal├ęria mesta Bratislavy, v ktorej je druh├í najv├Ą─Ź┼íia zbierka nizozemskej ma─żby a grafiky na Slovensku. V Mirbachovom pal├íci Gal├ęrie mesta Bratislavy v kur├ítorskej koncepcii Martina ─îi─Źa prezentovan├í ─Źas┼ą je venovan├í obdobiu Manierizmu a umeniu grafiky, na ktorej je prezentovan├Żch viac ako 90 grafick├Żch diel a 3 obrazy. Ide o majstrovsk├ę diela najv├Żznamnej┼í├şch grafikov poslednej tretiny 16. storo─Źia a za─Źiatku 17. storo─Źia, ktor├Żch tvorba bola zakotven├í v dom├ícom prostred├ş, ale aj s p├┤sobiskami v cudzine. Rovnako ako umenie manierizmu mala aj tvorba t├Żchto renomovan├Żch grafikov a reproduk─Źn├Żch rytcov v├Żnimo─Źn├Ż charakter a spoluur─Źovala t├│n umenia manierizmu, ktor├ę malo medzin├írodn├Ż charakter. K najv├Żznamnej┼í├şm tvorcom v tomto smere bol Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617), ktor├Ż spojil dom├ícu trad├şciu s talianskymi vplyvmi renesan─Źn├ęho a neskoroantick├ęho umenia do ojedinelej podoby a v├Żrazne ovplyvnil ryteck├ę umenie nielen v dom├ícom prostred├ş, ale aj v ┼íirokej cudzine. K skvostom patria predov┼íetk├Żm jeho vlastn├ę rytiny (napr├şklad listy z Pa┼íiov├ęho cyklu, R├íno, sv. Hieronym), ale aj reprodukcie jeho diel (Bacchus, Venu┼ía a Ceres). Zauj├şmav├ę uk├í┼żky predstavuj├║ aj napodobeniny jeho pa┼íiov├Żch v├Żjavov, vytv├íran├ę ako falzifik├íty. Na v├Żstave s├║ zast├║pen├ę pr├íce aj jeho najv├Żznamnej┼íieho ┼żiaka Jacquea de Gheyna (1565ÔÇô1629). Okrem najvyspelej┼í├şch dom├ícich centier ÔÇ×─Źierneho umeniaÔÇť, predov┼íetk├Żm Antverp a Haarlemu, bol ─Ćal┼í├şm v├Żznamn├Żm p├┤sobiskom nizozemsk├Żch manieristov predov┼íetk├Żm pra┼żsk├Ż dvor cis├íra Rudolfa II. Cis├ír Rudolf bol v├í┼íniv├Żm zberate─żom najm├Ą s├║─Źasn├ęho umenia a pokia─ż to bolo mo┼żn├ę, zamestn├íval svojich ob─ż├║ben├Żch autorov ako svojich dvorn├Żch maliarov, ktor├ş nap─║┼łali jeho predstavy. Tak sa postupne vytvoril v Prahe v├Żznamn├Ż umeleck├Ż okruh, v ktorom sa stretlo viacero vynikaj├║cich umelcov svojej doby, ako napr├şklad Hans von Aachen (1552ÔÇô1615), Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527ÔÇô1606?) a jeho syn Paul Vredeman de Vries (1567ÔÇôpo 1616), Joris Hoefnagel (1542ÔÇô1601) a spomedzi grafikov predov┼íetk├Żm Aegidius Sadeler (okolo 1570ÔÇô1629), ktor├Żch diela s├║ zast├║pen├ę aj na v├Żstave a patria ku klenotom eur├│pskeho umenia.

Na v├Żstave s├║ zast├║pen├ę napr├şklad portr├ęty cis├íra Rudolfa II., jeho gener├íla Karola Bonavent├║ru Buquoya, ─Źi perzsk├ęho vyslanca na pra┼żskom dvore od Aegidia Sadelera, alebo presl├íven├ę dielo Diana a Actaeon Rudolfovho dvorn├ęho maliara Jozefa Heintza (1564ÔÇô1609) v grafickej reprodukcii cis├írovho dvorn├ęho grafika. Hendrick Goltzius venoval Rudolfovi cyklus R├şmskych hrdinov, ktor├Ż je na v├Żstave zast├║pen├Ż tromi dielami. Kult├║ru panovn├şckych dvorov dokladaj├║ aj ─Ćal┼íie diela, cyklus Z├íhrad od Hansa Vredemana de Vries, cyklus Po─żova─Źiek, vytvoren├Żch pod─ża n├ívrhov Jana Stradana (1523ÔÇô1605), ktor├Ż p├┤sobil vo Florencii pre Mediciovcov. ┼Ż├ínrov├║ pestros┼ą vytv├íraj├║ ─Ćalej biblick├ę hist├│rie, pre manierizmus typick├ę aleg├│rie, ale aj krajina, ─Źi poh─żad na Prahu z najv├Żznamnej┼íej eur├│pskej ed├şcie poh─żadov na mest├í Civitates orbis terrarum. V┼íetky tieto diela ukazuj├║ vysok├║ profesionalitu rytcov reproduk─Źnej grafiky ak├Żmi boli pr├şslu┼ín├şci rodiny Collaertovcov, Galleovcov, Jan Saenredam (1565ÔÇô1607) a ─Ćal┼í├ş. Mnoh├ş z nich patrili nielen k ve─żmi zru─Źn├Żm reproduk─Źn├Żm grafikom, ktor├ş dok├ízali napodobi┼ą ┼ít├Żl tvorcu predlohy, ale aj vydavate─żmi svojich i cudz├şch tla─Ź├ş.

Okrem ve─żk├ęho mno┼żstva grafiky s├║ na v├Żstave prezentovan├ę aj tri ve─żmi hodnotn├ę obrazy, z ktor├Żch dva poch├ídzaj├║ zo zbierky cis├íra Rudolfa II., z jeho pra┼żskej obraz├írne. Ide o diela Hansa van Aachena Nesenie kr├ş┼ża a Paula Vredemana de Vries, ktor├ęho stv├írnenie architektonick├ęho mot├şvu v centr├ílnej perspekt├şve patrilo k najob─ż├║benej┼í├şm vo svojom ┼ż├ínri.

K ─Ćal┼í├şm vrcholom v├Żstavy patria napokon diela najv├Ą─Ź┼íieho holandsk├ęho umelca 17. storo─Źia Harmesza Rembrandta van Rijna (1606ÔÇô1669), ktor├Ż ─Źasovo s├şce prekra─Źuje obdobie doznievania umenia manierizmu, ale pr├íve na jeho pr├şklade ako protiklade k ryteckej ÔÇ×maniereÔÇť je ve─żmi dobre vidie┼ą ciele manieristov a na druhej strane g├ęnia Rembrandtovej vo─żnej kresby, v ktorej vytv├íral aj svoje neopakovate─żn├ę lepty.

Related event

Bratislava, National Gallery of Slovakia, Flying Dutchmen: paintings (14 December 2006-18 March 2007)